Varicose veins of the small pelvis in women: symptoms and treatment

Pain in the lower abdomen in a woman with varicose veins of the small pelvis

When it comes to varicose veins, few people associate this disease with internal organs. Most often, the pathology of the lower extremities is associated. Meanwhile, the proportion of varicose veins of the pelvic veins, which are not visible to the armed gaze, represents at least 5% of the total proportion of vascular diseases, and most patients find out about the diagnosis by chance.

This form of the disease mainly affects women of childbearing age. They present with pelvic varicose veins accompanied by symptoms similar to gynecological inflammation, the consequences of hormonal alterations and pathologies of the genitourinary system. That is why the disease has not been treated for a long time and continues to progress, leading to serious complications, including life-threatening ones.

Causes and risk factors

For varicose veins of the pelvic organs in women, doctors refer to a change in the structure of the vascular walls characteristic of other types of diseases: weakening followed by stretching and formation of "pockets" within which theblood stagnates. Cases in which only the vessels of the pelvic organs are affected are extremely rare. In about 80% of patients, along with this form, signs of varicose veins of the inguinal veins and vessels of the lower extremities are observed.

The incidence of varicose veins of the small pelvis is more pronounced in women. This is due to anatomical and physiological features that suggest a tendency to weaken the venous walls:

  • hormonal fluctuations, including those associated with the menstrual cycle and pregnancy;
  • increased pressure in the small pelvis, which is typical of pregnancy;
  • periods of more active filling of the veins with blood, including cyclical menstrual periods, during pregnancy and during sexual intercourse.

All the above phenomena belong to the category of factors causing varicose veins. And they are found exclusively in women. The greatest number of patients are faced with varicose veins of the small pelvis during pregnancy, since there is a simultaneous overlap of provoking factors. According to statistics, among men, varicose veins of the small pelvis are 7 times less common than among the more blond sex. Its set of provoking factors is more diverse:

  • Hypodynamic: long-term maintenance of low physical activity;
  • increased physical activity, especially dragging weights;
  • obesity;
  • lack of fiber in the diet;
  • inflammatory processes in the organs of the genitourinary system;
  • sexual dysfunction or lucid refusal to have sex.

A genetic predisposition can also lead to pathology of the plexuses located within the small pelvis. According to statistics, varicose veins of the perineum and pelvic organs are most often diagnosed in women whose relatives suffered from this ailment. The first changes in them can be observed in adolescence during puberty.

The increased risk of developing inguinal varicose veins in women with involvement of the pelvic vessels is seen in patients with venous pathology in other parts of the body. In this case, we are talking about congenital weakness of the veins.

Pain with varicose veins of the small pelvis.

Typical symptoms

In women, pelvic varicose veins are associated with severe but nonspecific symptoms. The manifestations of this disease are often considered signs of gynecological disorders. The main clinical symptoms of varicose veins in the groin in women with involvement of the pelvic vessels are:

  1. Non-menstrual pain in the lower abdomen. Its intensity depends on the stage of venous damage and the extent of the process. For the first degree of varicose veins of the small pelvis, periodic and mild pain that extends to the lumbar area are characteristic. In later stages, it is felt in the abdomen, perineum, and lower back, and is long and intense.
  2. Profuse mucous discharge. The so-called leucorrhoea does not have an unpleasant smell, does not change color, which would indicate an infection. The discharge volume increases in the second phase of the cycle.
  3. Increased symptoms of premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea. Even before the start of menstruation in women, the pain intensifies, until the appearance of walking difficulties. During menstrual bleeding, it can become unbearable, spreading to the entire pelvic region, perineum, lower back, and even the thighs.

Another characteristic sign of varicose veins in the groin in women is discomfort during sexual intercourse. It is felt on the vulva and vagina and is characterized as a dull ache. It can be observed at the end of intercourse. Also, the disease is accompanied by increased anxiety, irritability, and mood swings.

As with small pelvic varicose veins in men, the female part of patients with this diagnosis is gradually losing interest in sex. The cause of dysfunction is both constant discomfort and a decrease in the production of sex hormones. In some cases, infertility can occur.

How are pelvic varicose veins treated?

If women experience symptoms of pelvic varicose veins, treatment should be started as soon as possible. The main direction of therapy is to restore vascular tone, strengthen its walls, and improve blood flow in the pelvic area.

For pelvic varicose veins, a phlebologist prescribes and supervises treatment. If varicose veins of the small pelvis are detected in women during pregnancy, a phlebologist and gynecologist are involved in the treatment.

Disease therapy requires an integrated approach. It includes several treatments:

  1. Conservative impact. It consists of regular and long-lasting medication. With this method, you can cure pelvic varicose veins at an early stage, when the vessels have partially lost their tone.
  2. Non-drug therapy. It consists of adherence to the daily routine, exercise. The method is considered auxiliary, although it depends on reducing the risk of further progression of varicose veins.
  3. Surgical treatment. It is used when other methods are ineffective, as well as when disease is detected in later stages.

Drug therapy involves taking various groups of drugs that can not only eliminate unpleasant symptoms, but also improve the condition of the veins:

  • Venotonics, which are designed to improve venous outflow;
  • Drug that reduces blood density, which is prescribed to prevent thrombosis;
  • Complex remedy to reduce unpleasant symptoms and strengthen blood vessels;
  • Herbal preparation designed to reduce edema, eliminate inflammation;
  • A complex of vitamins designed to strengthen the vein walls.

Taking almost all venotonic medications for small pelvic varicose veins is not recommended during pregnancy. If the symptoms progress, the doctor can prescribe them in minimal doses starting at 12 weeks of gestation.

Surgery of the varicose vessels of the pelvic organs is considered a last resort. It is used in the absence of positive dynamics with prolonged use of drugs. The surgical treatment methods used may differ depending on the location of the vessels damaged by the disease:

  • if only the internal veins are affected, the ovarian vein is ligated;
  • with a combination of varicose veins of the pelvic organs with varicose veins of the perineum, the surgeon performs the ligation of the vena cava;
  • with a combination of varicose veins in the small pelvis and lower extremities, a crossectomy is performed.

Before and after the intervention, women must undergo a cycle of drug therapy, wear compression garments, and follow a strict diet to lose weight.


Preventing flare-ups and reducing the risk of progression is as important as therapeutic measures. It involves exercising for pelvic varicose veins and following a special diet. With its help it is possible:

  • to reduce weight, that is, to reduce the load on the blood vessels;
  • improve blood flow;
  • Birch exercise for the treatment of varicose veins of the small pelvis.
  • reduce the likelihood of blood clots;
  • reduces the risk of other complications.

In the complex of exercises for varicose veins of the small pelvis, the classics "Birch" and "Scissors with feet", "Bicycle" and lifting the toes from a standing position can be included. Such loads stimulate the outflow of blood from the small pelvis, strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor, which helps to reduce the swelling of the veins. It is necessary to perform gymnastics with pelvic varicose veins regularly, preferably every day in the morning and in the evening.

The peculiarities of the diet for pelvic varicose veins consist of the inclusion in the diet of foods rich in fiber and vitamins (mainly B, A, C, Omega-3 and Omega-6). Fiber is necessary to improve bowel function and eliminate congestion in the abdominal and pelvic organs. Vitamins are necessary to strengthen the walls of the veins, reducing the viscosity of the blood. To meet your needs, the diet includes:

  • whole grains: buckwheat, brown rice, millet, oats;
  • vegetables and fruits, berries and fruits, citrus fruits;
  • skinless chicken or turkey fillets;
  • shellfish, white and red fish, seaweed;
  • green tea, natural juices, compotes.

It is necessary to eat fractionally, giving preference to boiled, stewed and baked dishes, fresh vegetable salads.


Unlike leg varicose veins, the list of situations in which small pelvic varicose veins are dangerous in women includes a greater number of negative consequences. In addition to thrombosis, thromboembolism, thrombophlebitis, and other exclusively vascular complications, the following may occur in the context of the disease:

  • chronic inflammatory processes of the genitourinary system;
  • hormonal disorders;
  • dysfunctional uterine bleeding;
  • infertility.

This is not the only danger from pelvic varicose veins. Since the disease is often aggravated during pregnancy, there is a threat not only to the woman, but also to the fetus. The main complication of this form of varicose veins, which progresses in the context of pregnancy, is the delay in fetal development. Women with this diagnosis are more likely to give birth to a premature baby with low weight, underdeveloped lungs, etc.

During childbirth, with varicose veins in the groin, the vessel walls can rupture. It is plagued by profuse blood loss and can sometimes have sad consequences. To reduce the risk of such a complication, doctors tend to prescribe a cesarean section followed by vein ligation for women with pelvic varicose veins.