Varicose veins in the legs is one of the most common diseases that occurs in a large number of women of any age. Men get it too, but much less often. With such symptoms, it is very rare for people to see medical professionals right away. Everyone is trying to self-medicate, considering that these are all temporary manifestations. Varicose veins of the foot are often mistaken for simply an overworked body that is tired from daily work and a heavy schedule.
The peculiarity of varicose veins on the legs is such that treatment helps especially well only in the early stages of the disease, but not in the latter, when every day there are more and more manifestations. If everything is left to chance, then in the extreme stages a surgical operation is required. The disease progresses gradually. Especially if it is accompanied by venous insufficiency.
With varicose veins of the lower extremities, the symptoms disappear with pathological expansion and hemodynamic alterations. Venous valves do not work well. Over time, all of this worsens with thrombophlebitis, phlebothrombosis, and pulmonary thromboembolism.
Onset of the disease
The first symptoms of varicose veins in the legs are associated with an improper action of the vein valves, which leads to blood reflux. Endothelial cells receive a slower blood flow signal. Leukocytes are installed in them. Therefore, the process of inflammation begins in the vascular walls, which pass along the bed of the veins. The inflammatory process catalyzes disorders of the venous walls.
All pressure is strongest in the venous valve system. To begin with, the injury is noted in the areas with the greatest load: perforating vessels and large and small saphenous veins. After that, the channel begins to fill above the norm. From here comes the redistribution of venous blood in the walls. And underneath, most of the time, there are many more. All this volume gently reaches deep veins, where it stretches everything in its immediate environment. There is dilation and venous insufficiency of the valve sections.
Phlebologists identify a number of reasons that cause pathologies in the work of the venous system. This may be due to a genetic predisposition and due to all of the unpleasant effects on the human body. Hereditary characteristics are manifested not only in women, but also in men. The disease can pass indoors for a long period, but does not manifest itself outdoors in any way. After that, due to some external catalyst, a failure of the venous valves leads to the first manifestations on the skin.
The following important reasons cause ailments:
- age parameters;
- hormone failure;
- permanent constipation;
- periods after surgery or injury;
- dependence on alcohol and tobacco;
- hypercoagulability and excess weight;
- period of delivery and pregnancy;
- underwear that tightens individual parts of the body;
- long downtime and high loads in the workplace;
- congenital defects of the circulatory system;
- life in unsuitable conditions due to the weather.
Leg vein diseases are not a simple blue discoloration with long tree-shaped paths. They are also often called vascular stars. This is far from the first stage, and even the name of such a phenomenon is - intradermal varicose veins. As we wrote earlier, this situation can occur due to a number of factors, including pregnant girls. The human body is gradually rebuilding due to the influence of hormones. It is not dangerous, except for discomfort due to external manifestations. Ladies don't like to see they have a blue discoloration outward. Such manifestations of lower varicose veins can be eliminated with cosmetic devices, adjusting your diet and switching to recommended dietary products.
The bluish mesh usually indicates to the patient that he has a harmless type of varicose veins of the lower extremities.
Human health does not suffer from this in any way, but it is still unpleasant to live with such a problem for a long time. Experts advise to contact specialized cosmetology clinics, where you can be prescribed a course of drugs with herbs, lotions, gels and ointments. This is a combination of traditional medicine and classical clinical research.
If there are already bumps or bumps, then it is urgent to consult a doctor. Here there can be no self-medication. If there is pain in the legs with varicose veins, symptoms that are difficult for you to determine, contact the therapists. In general, it is very difficult to completely remove varicose veins of the lower extremities, the symptoms in the photo and the treatment attest to this. In advanced situations, you even have to go to the surgery department for help, where you will undergo an operation. Varicose veins that begin in the legs are characterized by heaviness in the extremities, edema, and some cramps. All these symptoms of varicose veins tell us directly that you have the case that is treated only under the supervision of a doctor.
If you notice redness on the skin, feel discomfort when walking, see compacted vascular walls, feel a rise in temperature, then this is already a serious disease called thrombophlebitis.
There is already a significant risk of losing your health. If you do not pay attention to all these signs of varicose enlargement for a long time, there are even several deaths per year. Usually with an illness with current symptoms, the patient is immediately admitted to the hospital for long-term treatment. Even if you've only noticed one symptom, there's no need to wait for seaside weather. Urgent to the clinic, and there it will be more visible.
In 2000, a classification with 4 degrees of varicose veins on the legs was proposed:
- Dilated veins within the skin of the segmental type. Venous discharges are not noticeable.
- Segmental dilated veins with reflux.
- Dilated veins with reflux in the entire area of the lower extremities.
- Dilated veins with varicose reflux penetrating deep veins.
In addition, medical workers identify not only ascending pathological changes that begin in the foot, but also descending ones - varicose veins begin at the mouth of the saphenous vein.
When determining the type of disease, they also look at the level of venous insufficiency.
Zero: the disease is absent in humans, the first is heaviness in the legs, the second is the manifestation of edema, the third is persistent edema, eczema, increased pigmentation, lipodermatosclerosis, the fourth is the formation of trophic ulcers.
At first, the method of examination of a phlebologist is simply external, that is, the doctor examines the external changes in the legs. With a high degree of probability, already at this stage, an approximate diagnosis is determined, but it never ends there. They then carry out a series of general investigation and diagnostic procedures:
- blood test;
- bone scan;
- reovasography and duplex examination;
- Doppler ultrasound and plethysmography.
Varicose veins of the lower extremities are easily treatable in the early stages. The entire procedure works to normalize blood circulation, blood flow and prevent any complications. All this helps to improve the general condition of the body. Therapeutic techniques are divided into two types.
Conservative therapy is most often used when the first signs of varicose veins appear on the legs. The skin is affected, but these are not some pronounced segments. The person continues to live a normal life. The disease does not affect fundamentally anything, except the psychological state.
The surgical method is recommended when the disease manifests itself in large areas with clear lines, small bumps and ulcers. The recovery method often begins with minimally invasive procedures, but full surgery sometimes comes to the rescue when the case is extremely neglected.
A complex course is prescribed to the patient:
- Specialists are trying to eliminate all possible risks of disease progression. Varicose veins in the legs are examined by a phlebologist, who may submit the patient to a clinical examination.
- They begin to fight against adynamia. If there is no thrombosis, then you need to actively participate in sports, evenly loading your body, vigorously training your lower extremities. The intensity is already being discussed with the physiotherapist. Most of the time they are forced to swim, run, ride a bike. Sports underwear with additional compression is recommended. Before exercising, you need to keep your legs in an elevated state for several minutes. Sick people are not advised to engage in contact sports: power martial arts, soccer, hockey. For better fixation of the legs, elastic bandages are used.
- Compression knitwear and elastic bandages are necessary not only on sports fields. They are trying to treat the symptoms of varicose veins in the lower extremities. When used correctly, venous circulation should improve. This type of treatment is often prescribed for a limited time.
- Taking medicines. The course of taking drugs is prescribed for all stages of the development of varicose veins. The thoughtless use of pills for the disease can only lead to a worsening of the situation. The patient can get rid of any bright manifestations on the legs in a month, if he follows the doctor's instructions. All prescribed drugs belong to different groups of drugs that have an anti-inflammatory effect and are related to angioprotectors, phlebotonics, deogrants or anticoagulants.
- Physiotherapy is always included in the complex of counteracting the symptoms of varicose veins in the legs. All of them affect, first of all, the restoration of the tone of the venous walls, lymphatic drainage and the improvement of blood circulation. Various medications are prescribed, from magnetic and laser therapy to pneumocompression and hyperbaric oxygenation. These are often oxygen and mineral baths. If there are no contraindications and side effects, the patient is prescribed massage activities. Plus, they can sometimes even be done at home on your own. They are also treated with hirudotherapy and apitherapy.
Venous-type diseases sometimes need to be treated by surgeons, when all the symptoms of the disease accumulate and negatively affect each other, and the stage has passed to the last quarter. They try to fight with a minimally invasive method. This is sclerotherapy with the introduction of certain substances that affect the walls of blood vessels. This is microsclerotherapy that acts directly on spider veins. This is microthermocoagulation, which works on a thin electrode, eliminating all shiny external manifestations. These are endovascular laser coagulation and radiofrequency ablation of varicose veins; all act on the affected areas of the veins, providing a thermal effect. All this is necessary in order not to prescribe drastic measures and perform a real operation. There are already separate methods of a new type, which began to be applied only in the late 90s.
Transluminal Phlebectomy - A thin probe is inserted into the lumen of the diseased vein. Thanks to this, the doctor exercises control over the entire operation. An anesthetic drug is administered. All affected areas are removed by aspiration.
Endoscopic dissection: Perforating veins are ligated using endoscopic devices.
There are also separate operations to preserve the veins. They aim to restore the functioning of the venous valves. There is a fixation of specialized structures that prevent pathological progress. Sometimes hemodynamic operations are used to relieve affected veins by directing venous flows in other directions. Relapses in these situations are common. Do not visit baths, saunas in the postoperative period, walk less often and do not lift heavy things.
The use of compression stockings with elastic bandages is necessary not only for sports. With the help of them, the initial signs of varicose veins are treated. If this is done correctly, there is an improvement in venous blood circulation. Often these treatments are prescribed for an unlimited period. Medications can be prescribed during any stage when varicose veins develop. If the pills are used madly to cure a disease, the situation can only get worse. After a month, patients can eliminate various manifestations on the surface of the legs, when you begin to follow the doctor's recommendations. Medications have an effect in which the inflammation disappears. These are angioprotective, phlebotonic, disinfectant or anticoagulant.
- The first answer, a 39-year-old woman: "The signs of varicose veins of the legs came to mean about a year ago. This is my hereditary disease in the line of my mother. Often, at the same time, atherosclerosis of the legs. vessels In this case, in my case, folk methods did not help to relieve pain, although I already had initial internal varicose veins. I started doing prophylaxis too late. The disease reached the small pelvis. I went to a specialist who examined all affected areas. He will prescribe a specialized course of treatment that will rid me of all unpleasant external manifestations in about a month. We can safely say that all women should go to the doctor immediately. Do not use all these grandmother methods. Just phlebologists will help you find medications. They know all about varicose vein problems. "
- The second opinion, a 52-year-old woman: "Despite constantly monitoring her health, varicose veins appeared. I always turn to treating doctors simply for the initial examination and diagnosis. The whole course lasted 3-4 weeks. Then already I was engaged in purely preventive and restorative procedures. Now a little sport, proper nutrition, yes, in general, that's all. The disease has receded and, I hope, it will never return. "