Constant pain in the pelvic area in women is often associated with circulatory problems in this plane. Latent enlargement of the pelvic veins is not uncommon. What is it and how to treat it? We will consider it in this material!
As medical statistics show, more than half of middle-aged women experience recurring pain in the lower abdomen. About half of all these cases are associated with circulatory disorders. This is manifested by stagnation of blood and subsequent effusion of intercellular fluid into the pelvic cavity. Congestion leads to compression of the soft tissues of the organs. This provokes the development of pain syndrome. The cause of this pathological process is varicose veins of the small pelvis.
It usually begins to develop during pregnancy and then progresses slowly throughout a woman's life. Currently, there are no reliable data on the causes of this phenomenon and on effective treatment methods.
In a normally functioning vein, blood flows in only one direction. The valve system prevents backflow. In the event that the valves lose their integrity and elasticity, a gradual reverse flow of venous blood develops. With a prolonged pathological process, this leads to constant stagnation of the blood. As a result, the vascular wall stretches and the vein cavity expands. You lose your bandwidth and the ability to compress when you need to.
In the initial stage, pain in this disease occurs due to the infringement of the nerve endings that innervate the vascular walls of the venous bed.
Currently, science does not know the exact cause of this disease. Possible risk factors include the following.
- Physiology of pregnancy. During pregnancy, there is a significant increase in the volume of circulating blood. This leads to an increase in the weight of the pregnant woman. Excess blood volume in combination with excess body weight is believed to contribute to the expansion of the venous bed. In the future, this will lead to congestion and damage to the venous valves.
- The action of estrogens. During pregnancy, large doses of estrogenic hormones are constantly injected into a woman's body. They are necessary for the preservation and growth of the fetus. Estrogens reduce the risk of miscarriage by relaxing the muscles of the uterus. But, on the other hand, these substances negatively affect the contractility of blood vessels.
- Individual anatomical disorders. In some patients, individual anatomical features are revealed in relation to the veins of the small pelvis. Its location is, in principle, unfavorable for the beginning of pregnancy. Therefore, the onset of fertilization in most cases leads to the development of venous insufficiency.
Is there a relationship between this condition and varicose veins of the lower extremities?
Varicose veins in the small pelvis are very similar to the condition of varicose veins in the legs. In both cases, the valves in the veins that help blood flow to the heart are affected. The function of the valves to prevent backflow of blood is impaired. When the valves collapse, the blood pools in the veins. Veins that swell stretch and make congestion worse. Pelvic venous overload syndrome develops primarily near the uterus, fallopian tubes, vulva, and even the vagina. The condition is generally associated with weight gain, which is unavoidable during pregnancy.
Varicose veins are generally seen in women:
- between the ages of 20 to 45;
- during multiple pregnancies.
What are the signs and symptoms?
The most common complaint of an injured woman is pain of varying severity. The pain syndrome is constant in nature and is not cyclical in nature. There is an increase in pain:
- before the start of menstruation;
- at the end of a hard day's work;
- after standing for a long time;
- during or immediately after intercourse;
- in the later stages of pregnancy.
All these symptoms are reason enough to consult a phlebologist. This condition may be associated with a periodic increase in total body weight of 2 to 5 kg. This weight is formed mainly due to the leakage of fluid into the abdominal cavity of the small pelvis.
There are many other nonspecific symptoms that appear with varying intensity. In general, symptoms are more likely to occur at the end of the day or after standing for a long time or even after intercourse. In some cases, the pain can be severe and affect personal and social relationships.
The signs can also include:
- swelling of the vulva and vagina;
- varicose veins of the external genital organs, buttocks, legs;
- abnormal menstrual bleeding;
- pain when touching the lower abdomen;
- pain during intercourse;
- painful periods;
- Back pain;
- vaginal discharge
- general weakness and apathy;
- feelings of depression and depression.
In most cases, the presence of pelvic stasis syndrome is not obvious and the diagnosis can only be made after excluding other diseases. Similar disorders that can have the same symptoms include:
- uterine fibers;
- prolapse of the uterus (the uterus sinks lower in the pelvis, as a result of weakness of the pelvic floor muscles).
Laboratory diagnosis and research
For a complete diagnosis of the presence of stagnation, laboratory tests are important. Usually a woman is assigned a standard set of exams.
Ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs. She will help assess the condition of the uterus and other organs of the small pelvis. She can also help visualize blood flow and the presence of varicose veins in the pelvis. The procedure is painless and takes about 30 minutes. Generally inexpensive and effective.
Phlebogram. This test was widely used in the past to diagnose blood stagnation in the pelvic cavity, but today, if possible, the procedure is replaced by a CT scan. The test involves injecting a special dye into a vein in your groin and then using X-rays. The procedure takes between 30 and 45 minutes and is done on an outpatient basis. The test is painless, however there is a risk of developing an allergic reaction to the contrast medium. In addition, the possibility of radiation exposure to the pelvic organs is not excluded.
Computed tomography is often used in the diagnosis of pelvic varicose veins. This method allows you to visually examine the anatomy of the small pelvis and identify varicose veins in the small pelvis. This is due to radiation exposure and is not recommended as a test in pregnant women.
Magnetic resonance imaging is a very useful test in the diagnosis of pelvic congestion syndrome. It does not use radiation or contrast agent. This is a painless test. The images are of excellent quality. It is the preferred method of choice for diagnosing most cases. The test takes about 15 minutes and is done on an outpatient basis.