Varicose veins in our body can be located not only on the legs. The pelvic area is another place where varicose veins can also be. A pathological condition in which there are dilated veins in the small pelvis, as a rule, occurs in women and is accompanied by periodic discomfort and pain in the lower abdomen. Small pelvic varicose veins are also found in men, but it is manifested mainly by the expansion of the veins of the spermatic cord (varicocele). This pathological process in men can be accompanied by discomfort, heaviness in the scrotum, pain in intimacy.
According to statistics, varicose veins of the small pelvis, or as it is also called, chronic pelvic pain syndrome, occurs mainly in young women, aged 18 to 48 years. The number of patients with this ailment increases several times with age. The statistics are disappointing. So, at the age of 18-19 years, varicose veins of the small pelvis are detected in 15-18% of women, and by the age of 48 their number increases to 70-80%.
Causes of pelvic varicose veins
The first reason is physical inactivity. It also includes the specificity of the patient's work, "sedentary" or "standing" work. Due to the long stay of a person in orthostasis, the venous flow is disturbed and this leads to stagnation of the small pelvis. The valves in pathologically dilated veins no longer adhere firmly to each other, a gap forms between the valves, and the blood is drained due to the force of gravity. In such veins, the blood thickens and this can subsequently lead to thrombosis.
The second reason is pregnancy. During pregnancy, the uterus increases in size and begins to press on the underlying veins. Also, during pregnancy, the hormonal background changes, the volume of circulating blood in the small pelvis increases.
But, to calm women who are preparing for conception and pregnancy, such varicose veins do not carry a direct danger. In the case of varicose veins of the small pelvis, delivery is usually normal. An unpleasant moment: in 30-40% of pregnant women there is an enlargement of the veins of the vulva and perineum. But we must remember that immediately after childbirth, these veins decrease significantly and after a year they completely disappear. After delivery, varicose veins of the small pelvis remain only in 2-6% of patients.
The third reason is the presence of various types of gynecological pathologies for the treatment of which hormonal drugs are used.
The fourth reason is smoking. It is very dangerous to smoke while taking hormonal contraceptives. Smoking thickens the blood just like hormonal contraceptives. Hence the many ridiculous accidents that are known in medicine, when smoking girls taking hormonal contraceptives died of thrombosis.
The fifth reason is obesity. With excess body weight, the load on the vessels increases significantly.
The sixth reason is the ecological situation in the region of residence, air pollution in cities, especially in megacities, increases the risks of developing varicose veins.
The main symptoms of varicose veins of the small pelvis.
- painful periods;
- Recurring pain in the lower abdomen, as well as in the pelvic area, radiating to the sacrum, lower back and perineum;
- pain and discomfort in the vulva or vagina, during and after intimacy;
- profuse mucous discharge from the vagina, usually in the second half of the menstrual cycle;
- Visible expansion of venous vessels in the genital area, in the groin. "Asterisks", "mesh" on the buttocks and back of the thighs.
What to do if you have symptoms of pelvic varicose veins?
If you find all of the above in yourself, then do not delay the visit to the doctor, otherwise possible complications will not keep you waiting long.
The first doctor you should see is a gynecologist.
He will carry out an exam, name all the necessary exams. All patients with suspected pelvic varicose veins undergo an ultrasound examination of the abdominal organs.
To clarify the diagnosis, the patient is referred to a phlebologist. They perform a duplex ultrasound of the veins of the lower extremities (USDG), which allows you to get a complete picture of the venous outflow.
In difficult cases, a phlebologist may prescribe additional examination methods (CT scan, MRI, or diagnostic laparoscopy). To establish an accurate diagnosis and determine the degree of the disease, these studies are sufficient.
The degree of varicose veins of the small pelvis.
- 1 degree - veins of the small pelvis up to 5 mm in diameter (damage to any venous plexus of the small pelvis is observed), the course of the vessel is already acquiring a tortuous appearance;
- 2 degrees - the size of the veins is 6-10 mm; varicose veins on ultrasound are visible throughout the small pelvis and can only affect the ovarian plexus, the veins of the uterus or the veins of the myometrium;
- Grade 3 is a total of small pelvic varicose veins, varicose veins have a diameter of more than 10 to 12 mm.
How to treat pelvic varicose veins?
- Fight against hypodynamics. If the work is associated with sitting or standing for a long time, warm up after 1 to 1. 5 hours;
- Stop smoking, drinking alcohol (especially if you are pregnant! );
- Wear compression underwear (stockings, tights) to improve venous flow to the lower extremities;
- Wear comfortable shoes, avoiding high heels;
- Diet (exclusion from the diet of salty, spicy, fried). Salty foods always retain fluid in the body, which leads to edema, an increase in blood pressure, thus impairing the flow of blood through the veins. You should include more fiber (fruits, vegetables, herbs) in your diet;
- Contrast shower, (especially on the thighs, perineum, lower abdomen);
- Physiotherapy and breathing exercises.
- Phlebotonics - to improve the tone of varicose veins, reduce their permeability;
- Horse Chestnut Extract - to relieve inflammation and swelling;
- Troxerutin - to improve blood outflow from varicose veins, increase vein tone, reduce inflammation and edema;
- Vitamin C: to strengthen the walls of blood vessels, reduce their fragility.
Venous gels and ointments are not used in the treatment of pelvic varicose veins due to the internal location of the affected veins.
Doctors recommend a mandatory combination of drug therapy with the use of compression stockings (stockings, stockings). During pregnancy, there is a particular need for compression garments.
Surgical operation is an extreme measure used when medical correction is impossible and ineffective, and the disease is very advanced and can cause a number of complications.
Various techniques are used depending on the prevalence, location, and diameter of pathologic veins. In the event that a surgical intervention is necessary, the selection of the type of surgical aid is individual, since everything depends on the location and prevalence.